Método experimental para la caracterización de las diferentes tecnologías de integración arquitectónica de la energía fotovoltaica en condiciones de funcionamiento real. Experimental method for characterization of several building integrated photovoltaic technologies under real working conditions

Polo Lopez, Cristina Silvia (2016) Método experimental para la caracterización de las diferentes tecnologías de integración arquitectónica de la energía fotovoltaica en condiciones de funcionamiento real. Experimental method for characterization of several building integrated photovoltaic technologies under real working conditions. PhD thesis, UPM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid..

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Official Website: http://oa.upm.es/39801/


A proper BIPV element for façade should take into account thermal and insulation properties, factors as transparency to allow solar gains if possible or a good solar control if necessary, aspects that are linked and high dependent on climate conditions and on the level of comfort to be reached. However, the influence of different façade integrated photovoltaic solutions on the building energy consumption is not easy to assess under real operating conditions. Thermal aspects, indoor temperatures or luminance level that can be expected using building integrated PV (BIPV) modules are not well known. As said before, integrated photovoltaic BIPV components and the use of renewable energy is already a standard for green energy production, but would also be important to know the possible contribution to improve the comfort and health of building occupants. Comfort, light transmission or protection, thermal insulation or thermal/electricity power production are aspects that are usually considered alone, while all together contribute to the building global energy balance. Besides, the need to prioritize a particular building envelope orientation to harvest the most benefit from the electrical or thermal energy production, in the case of active and passive systems respectively might be not compatible, but also not necessary. A holistic approach is needed to enable architects and engineers implementing technological systems working in synergy. A new concept have been suggested: “C-BIPV, conscious integrated BIPV”. BIPV systems have to be “consciously integrated” which means that it is essential to know the positive and negative effects in terms of comfort and energy under real operating conditions. Purpose of the work, method and results The façade-integrated photovoltaic systems are often glass solutions easily integrable, as they usually are custommade. These BIPV semi-transparent components integrated as a window element provides natural lighting and shade that prevents overheating at times of excessive heat, but as static component, likewise avoid the possible solar gains contributions in the cold months. In addition, the temperature of the module varies considerably in ,certain circumstances influenced by the PV technology installed, solar radiation, mounting system, lack of ventilation, etc. This factor may result in additional heat input in the building highly variable and difficult to quantify. In addition, further insights into the indoor environmental comfort in buildings using integrated photovoltaic technologies are needed to open up thereby, a new research perspective. This research aims to study their behaviour through a series of experiments in order to define the real influence on comfort aspects and on global energy building consumption, as well as, electrical and thermal characteristics of these devices. The final objective was to analyze a whole set of issues that influence the global energy consumption/production in a building using BIPV modules by quantifying the global energy balance and the BIPV system real performances. Other qualitative issues to be studied were comfort aspect (thermal and lighting aspects) and the electrical behaviour of different BIPV technologies for vertical integration, aspects that influence both energy consumption and electricity production. Thus, it will be possible to obtain a comprehensive global characterization of BIPV systems. A specific design of an outdoor test facility, the BIPV Env-lab “BIPV Test Laboratory”, for the integral characterization of different BIPV semi-transparent modules was developed and built. The method and test protocol for the BIPV characterization was also defined in a real building context and weather conditions. This has been possible once assessed the state of the art and research, the aspects that influence the architectural integration and the different possibilities and types of integration for PV and after having examined the test methods for building and photovoltaic components, under operation conditions heretofore used. The test laboratory that consists in two equivalent test rooms (1:1) has a monitoring system in which reliable data of thermal, daylighting and electrical performances can be obtained for the evaluation of PV modules. The experimental set-up facility (testing room) allows studying three different aspects that affect building energy consumption and comfort issues: the thermal indoor comfort, the lighting comfort and the energy performance of BIPV modules tested under real environmental conditions. Knowing the energy balance for each experimented solar technology, it is possible to determine which one performs best. A theoretical methodology has been proposed for evaluating these parameters, as defined in this thesis as indices or indicators, which regard comfort issues, energy and the overall performance of BIPV components. This methodology considers the existing regulatory standards for each aspect, relating them to one another. A set of insulated glass BIPV modules see-through and light-through, representative of different PV technologies (mono-crystalline silicon technology, mc-Si, amorphous silicon thin film single junction, a-Si and copper indium selenide thin film technology CIS) were selected for a series of experimental tests in order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed characterization method. As result, it has been developed and generated the ICD Integral Characterization Diagram, a graphic and visual system to represent the results and manage information, a useful operational tool for decision-making regarding to photovoltaic installations. This diagram shows all concepts and parameters studied in relation to each other and visually provides access to all the results obtained during the experimental phase to make available all the qualitative and quantitative information on the energy performance of the BIPV components by characterizing them in a comprehensive way.

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