Sommaruga, Lorenzo and Catenazzi, Nadia and Locatelli, C (2023) THE TANGRAM STUDY FOR MIXED REALITY AFFORDANCE COMPARISON. In: EDULEARN23 Proceedings.

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This paper describes a comparison, carried out within a Swiss funded research project, among three different technological approaches to support procedural learning: wearable Mixed Reality (MR), handheld MR, and hypervideo on desktop computer. The Tangram game was used as a case study for the comparison of the three approaches. A specific application to teach how to solve the tangram puzzle, through different steps with incremental levels of scaffolding, was developed in 3 versions: for HoloLens 2, for Android smartphones and for hypervideo. A UX expert review was then conducted involving 7 experts with the objective to identify usability issues, collect suggestions for improvements, and compare the different approaches. The most interesting remark was the need to take into greater consideration the affordances of each device, in particular the in-time and in-space distinctive feature of Mixed Reality. In general, none of the approaches was considered the best or the worst, but it depends on the experience we intend to create: HoloLens 2 is judged a comfortable and high-quality wearable device for immersive experience, it is very attractive and engaging, but it requires a training phase for novel users. MR on Handheld devices is appreciated, being the devices well-known and easy to use; the main issue is connected to the physical effort required to hold it for a long time. The experience of use of hypervideo is found to be easy and intuitive, although less attractive.

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