Development and evaluation of iron-fortified extruded rice grains

Moretti, Diego and Lee, Tung-Ching and Zimmermann, Michael B. and Nuessli, J and Hurrell, Richard F. (2005) Development and evaluation of iron-fortified extruded rice grains. UNSPECIFIED. JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, 70 (5). S330-S336.

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Abstract

Although rice can be fortified with iron by producing fortified extruded grains, achieving good sensory properties and high iron bioavailability is difficult. Our study aim was to develop iron-fortified rice with comparable sensory characteristics to natural rice using iron compounds of high bioavailability. We tested ferrous sulfate, NaFeEDTA, ferric pyrophosphate of different particle sizes (mean particle sizes: 20 mu m, 2.5 mu m, 0.5 mu m) and electrolytic iron, as well as encapsulated forms of iron. Extruded rice grains containing 0.5 and 1 g Fe/100 g were produced using a single screw extruder and blended, respectively, with natural rice at a 1:100 or 1:200 ratio. Extruded rice grains were evaluated by color measurements and texture profile analysis, and iron loss during rinsing was measured. The sensory comparison between fortified and unfortified rice was performed using triangle tests. Color scores in a similar range to natural rice were obtained using ferric pyrophosphate as an iron fortification compound. The cooked extruded grains had comparable texture to cooked natural grains, and losses during rinsing were <3%. Fortification with all other compounds resulted in strong color changes. In the triangle tests, rice grains fortified with either of the 2 forms of micronized ferric pyrophosphate closely resembled unfortified rice in both uncooked and cooked form. Iron-fortified extruded rice grains with excellent sensory characteristics and potential high bioavailability can be produced using micronized ferric pyrophosphate.

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